1. The food consumption of an animal. both at the individual and the population level, is an essential component for assessing the impact of that animal on its ecosystem. As such, measurements of the energy requirements of marine top-predators are extremely valuable as they can be used to estimate these food requirements. 2. The present study used heart rate to estimate the rate of energy expenditure of gentoo penguins during the breeding season. The average daily metabolic rate (ADMR) of penguins when one adult was necessarily present at the nest (incubating eggs or guarding small chicks; IG, 4.76 W kg(-1)) was significantly lower than that when both parents forage concurrently during the major period of chick growth (CR: 6.88 W kg(-1)). 3. The ADMR of a bird was found to be dependent on a number of factors, including the day within the breeding season and the percentage time that the bird spent foraging during that day. 4. When they were ashore, the estimated metabolic rate of IG birds (3.94 W kg(-1)) was significantly lower than that of CR birds (5.93 W kg(-1)). However, the estimated metabolic rates when the birds were at sea during these periods were essentially the same (8.58 W kg(-1)). 5. The heart rate recorded when the penguins were submerged (128 beats min(-1)) was significantly higher than that recorded from resting animals when ashore (89 beats min(-1)). However, it was lower than that recorded from birds that were swimming in a water channel (177 beats min(-1)). This might indicate that, although primarily aerobic in nature, there was an anaerobic component to metabolism during diving. An alternative interpretation is that the metabolic requirement during diving was lower than when the birds,were swimming with access to air. 6. There was a significant decline in abdominal temperature. from 38.8 degreesC at the start of a diving bout to 36.2 degreesC at the end, which may, indicate a reduction in overall metabolic rate during submersion. This in turn may explain the lowered heart rate. 7. In the present study. we have shown that the metabolic rate of the gentoo penguin varies during the breeding season. The relatively constant metabolic rate of the birds when at sea could represent an upper physiological limit that the birds are unable to exceed. If so, it will only be possible for the birds to increase foraging effort by diving more frequently and/or for longer periods thus reducing their foraging efficiency (the energy gained during foraging vs. energy spent gaining that food). During years when food is scarce, this reduction in foraging efficiency may have a profound influence on the reproductive productivity of the gentoo penguin.
FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmail,“Right Jab-Middle Jab And Left Jab” was created because we have a couple of commenters that post on a daily basis either in our “IS IT TRUE” or “Readers Forum” columns concerning National or International issues.The majority of our “IS IT TRUE” columns are about local or state issues, so we have decided to give our more opinionated readers exclusive access to our newly created “LEFT JAB and Middle Jab and RIGHT JAB” column. They now have this post to exclusively discuss national or world issues that they feel passionate about.We shall be posting the “LEFT JAB” AND “MIDDLE JAB” AND “RIGHT JAB” several times a week. Oh, “LEFT JAB” is a liberal view, “MIDDLE JAB” is the libertarian view and the “RIGHT JAB is representative of the more conservative views. Also, any reader who would like to react to the written comments in this column is free to do so. “Right Jab-Middle Jab And Left Jab” was created because we have a couple of commenters that post on a daily basis either in our “IS IT TRUE” or “Readers Forum” columns concerning National or International issues.The majority of our “IS IT TRUE” columns are about local or state issues, so we have decided to give our more opinionated readers exclusive access to our newly created “LEFT JAB and Middle Jab and RIGHT JAB” column. They now have this post to exclusively discuss national or world issues that they feel passionate about.We shall be posting the “LEFT JAB” AND “MIDDLE JAB” AND “RIGHT JAB” several times a week. Oh, “LEFT JAB” is a liberal view, “MIDDLE JAB” is the libertarian view and the “RIGHT JAB is representative of the more conservative views. Also, any reader who would like to react to the written comments in this column is free to do so.Today’s “Readers Poll’ question is: If the election was held today in the City Council 1st Ward who would you vote for?If you would like to advertise in the CCO please contact us at City-County [email protected] Footnote: City-County Observer Comment Policy. Be kind to people. Personal attacks or harassment will not be tolerated and shall be removed from our site.
Susina Maiden, 17, is already mapping out her career path to launch her own bakery business in Solihull, after graduating from Warburtons Young Bakers Aca-demy. After completing a three- month course at the academy at the University College of Bir-mingham, she has now embarked on an NVQ Level One in baking skills. She said: “I love baking and really enjoyed the practical side of the course. To be able to continue to learn more about the business side of baking is really interesting. I am now studying cake decoration, confectionery, and bread production, all of which will help me reach my goal to own my own bakery business in Solihull.”Mike Ewing, area business development manager at War-burtons bakery in Wednesbury, said: “We are delighted to sponsor the programme and congratulate all of the bakers, especially Susina. It’s great to see young people keeping this tradition alive.”
Jo Fairley is co-owner of Judges organic bakery and grocery shop in Hastings and co-founder of Green & Black’s chocolate firm with hubby Craig SamsIs success spelt s-p-e-l-t? When we first opened Judges Bakery in Hastings, spelt loaves were a Saturday-only item – but by popular demand, we’re now baking them on the 362 days a year that we’re open. It’s simple: demand for spelt is booming.There’s a widespread perception among the public that spelt’s easier on the tummy. Roger Saul, the ex-Mulberry dynamo, who has an organic farm near Glastonbury, is even building an empire on the back of it, offering not just spelt flour but pearlised spelt, which is also great for risotto, as well as spelt cookies and spelt loaves. His wife Monty’s experience was similar to thousands of other individuals: that spelt seemed, to her, more digestible compared to many other flours and breads.Spelt grain – triticum spelta – is said to be much older than most wheats, eaten in the Bronze age, medieval times and by the Romans. Some archaeologists date spelt’s history as far back as the fifth millennium BC and remains have been found north of the Black Sea. But can its history explain why it appears to be better tolerated by fragile digestive systems than more modern forms of the grain? Personally, I have a theory that it’s another factor entirely that makes spelt more digestible – namely, that many of the spelt loaves available are baked not in giant, industrial-scale bread units but in artisan bakeries like Judges, which showcase niche products.Certainly, the vast majority of our customers who buy our spelt bread tell us that it’s because they simply cannot tolerate ’normal’ flour. (Spelt’s certainly not suitable for coeliacs, although other people with a history of tummy troubles seem to get on with it fine.) But anecdotally, from my time behind the bakery counter, I’ve found that many formerly bread-wary customers find they can tolerate all our slow-dough breads, without triggering bloat, wind and other discomforts. It’s true of our spelt loaves – but equally of our other sourdoughs, in which the gluten chains are broken down by natural enzymes as the loaves slowly rise.Yes, the small, artisan bakeries which are once again flourishing in the UK often use spelt flour. But equally important may be the fact that these bakeries are not baking on an industrial scale – adding lots of yeast, enzymes and improvers to produce thousands of loaves an hour.Instead, artisan bakeries rely on that most precious commodity of all – time – to allow loaves (spelt and otherwise) to prove and rise. In previous centuries – never mind millennia – bread was always left to rise overnight. Now, in some cases, it’s made in as little as an hour. Go figure.
Pinterest Facebook By Associated Press – February 26, 2020 0 220 IndianaLocalNews Pinterest Google+ Indiana lawmakers agree on tougher tobacco sales penalties WhatsApp A man displays his Juul electronic cigarette while shopping at a convenience store in Hoboken, N.J., Thursday, Dec. 20, 2018. Altria, one of the world’s biggest tobacco companies, is spending nearly $13 billion to buy a huge stake in the vape company Juul as cigarette use continues to decline. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez) INDIANAPOLIS (AP) — Indiana lawmakers are poised to double the fines stores could face for selling smoking or vaping products to anyone younger than 21 years old.Legislators advanced an agreement Wednesday reached by Senate and House negotiators on a bill that supporters say will help reduce Indiana’s high smoking rates by making it more difficult for youths to obtain tobacco-related items such as cigarettes or e-cigarette liquids.But the Republican-sponsored proposal doesn’t include any additional taxes on cigarettes or regulations on vaping liquids as sought by health advocates.The agreement would boost the maximum fine against a retailer for a first violation from $200 to $400. Google+ Previous articleBus service between Notre Dame and Chicago airports resumes March 3rdNext articleLake-effect snow to end by mid-morning on Thursday, colder temps remain Associated PressNews from the Associated Press and its network of reporters and publications. WhatsApp Twitter Facebook Twitter
Well, this is jaw-dropping.It takes a certain level of mastery to play the music of Snarky Puppy, as the unique jazz/funk collective flows through ornate compositions with panache. To totally re-interpret that music, however, is on a level of its own. That’s what this A cappella group did, as part of their unique “Adapted for Six Voices” series. The sextet tackled Puppy’s famed song “Shofukan” with a twist, abandoning all instruments for a vocal-only rendition.Feast your ears on this incredible adaptation in the video below.For comparison, here’s the original version of “Shofukan.” Vocalist CreditsSoprano: India CarneyAlto: Erin BentlageTenor: Nathan HeldmanBaritone: Ben McLainBass: Tracy RobertsonVocal Percussion: Charlie Arthur
Gov’t Mule already has a busy year ahead of them, but they’ve just doubled down with a major announcement! The band has revealed a series of seven shows this May, dubbed the “Come What May” tour, taking them from New York, NY to Milwaukee, WI in the process.The new tour starts just a few weeks after the band rocks through a Jazz Fest late night performance, hitting the Central Park SummerStage on May 17th with the Chris Robinson Brotherhood. From there, Mule will head to Upper Darby, PA, Washington DC, and continue West to stops in St. Louis, Kansas City, Minneapolis and Milwaukee.The announcement of the tour also comes with an exciting update about Gov’t Mule’s new studio album. Any ticket purchased online for these upcoming shows comes with a free digital download of the forthcoming studio album! The band has also forecasted the release of said album for the summer of 2017, but hasn’t given many other details about it. Our previous updates came from keyboardist Danny Louis, who shared images of himself and his bandmates in the studio months ago.You can find more info on these tour dates via Mule’s official website. Check out their full tour schedule below, with the new dates in bold.Gov’t Mule 2017 Tour DatesMarch 3: Lake Tahoe, NV @MontBleu ResortMarch 4: Las Vegas, NV @ Brooklyn Bowl VegasMarch 5: Phoenix, AZ @ McDowell Mountain Music FestivalApril 20-22: Live Oak, FL @ Wanee FestivalApril 23: Greenville, SC @ Peace Center Concert Hall*April 24: Huntsville, AL @ Von Braun Center*April 26: Memphis, TN @ Minglewood Hall*April 27: Mobile, AL @ Saenger Theatre*April 28: New Orleans, LA @ Saenger Theatre^May 17: New York, NY @ Central Park SummerStage (W/ Chris Robinson Brotherhood) May 19: Upper Darby, PA @ Tower Theater May 20: Washington, DC @ Warner Theatre May 22: St. Louis, MO @ The Pageant May 23: Kansas City, MO @ Uptown Theatre May 25: Minneapolis, MN @ State Theatre May 26: Milwaukee, WI @ Pabst TheatreMay 25-28: Cumberland, MD @ DelFestAugust 19: Morrison, CO @ Red Rocks Amphitheatre (w/ Yonder Mountain String Band & The Marcus King Band)August 24-27: Arrington, VA @ Lockn’ Festival*With Eric Krasno Band^With Soulive
On July 4th in 2010, Phish stopped in Alpharetta, GA, at the beloved Verizon Wireless Amphitheatre for a standout show with a standout setlist on America’s birthday, highlighted by the Phish debut of Rage Against The Machine’s “Killing In The Name Of”.The show opened with “The Star-Spangled Banner”, followed by a monstrous “Punch You In The Eye” > “Colonel Forbin’s Ascent” > “Fly Famous Mockingbird”, which got the blistering hot Atlanta venue locked in and ready for a long night of jams. “Camel Walk”, “Ocelot”, and “Heavy Things” followed, with an excellent segue out of “My Friend My Friend” into “Lawnboy”. A scorching “Gotta Jibboo” brought set one to a close, with a promising holiday show in the works.Set two opened up with an unfinished “Down With Diesease”, which led into a marathon of “Piper” > “Ghost” > “Waste”, and “Julius” > “Mike’s Song” > “Tela”. The highlight of the show came next when Phish sandwiched a debut cover of Rage Against The Machine’s “Killing In The Name Of” in an epic “Harpua”. “Weekapaug Groove” closed out set two, with a fitting “First Tube” encore on such a joyous occasion.Check out a video of this classic 4th of July cover below!Phish – “Killing In The Name Of” – 07/04/2010[Video: dougcurling]Setlist: Phish | Verizon Wireless Amphitheatre | Alpharetta, GA | 07/04/2010Set 1: The Star Spangled Banner, Punch You In The Eye> Colonel Forbin’s Ascent> Fly Famous Mockingbird, Camel Walk, Ocelot, Heavy Things> My Friend My Friend> Lawn Boy, David Bowie, Gotta JibbooSet 2: Down With Disease> Piper> Ghost>Waste, Julius> Mike’s Song> Tela> Harpua>Killing In The Name Of> Harpua> Weekapaug GrooveEncore: First TubeDisease was unfinished. Harpua contained a tease of London Bridge Is Falling Down. This show marked the Phish debut of Killing in the Name (Rage Against the Machine).
Load remaining images After stocking up on beer in Milwaukee, Widespread Panic took the scenic route to Las Vegas. Rumors circulated that they were camping out in the Valley of Fire State Park—“City of Dreams”-style. Others claimed that they were seen at the T-Mobile Arena for the Vegas Golden Knights hockey game on Wednesday. Another source claimed the band was spotted riding motorcycles down Las Vegas Boulevard. Regardless of the endless speculation on how the musicians of Widespread Panic spent their time last week, the boys were back on stage for the first of three nights at the Park Theater in the MGM Park Casino by 9:30 Pacific Time, doing what they do best: kicking ass and shredding faces.The band opened with a casual stroll through the instrumental “The Take Out”. Halfway through, the bottom fell out and developed into a scorching rendition of Tom Waits‘ “Goin’ Out West” (“They got some money out there they are giving it away, gonna do what I want and I’m gonna get paid!”). John Bell, wearing a red flannel and a grizzly grey beard, provided some crisp lead vocals with Dave Schools supporting with backups. It took Jimmy Herring no time to take this jam to a higher plateau, indicating early on that this band did not come to mess around.After a slight pause, in which John Bell instructed the sound technicians to “turn Jimmy Up,” JoJo Hermann’s keys and vocals took us through a funky-fried “Greta”. John Bell and Dave Schools supplemented the tune with backup vocals, growling sounds, and other animal howls. After another guitar lesson at warp speed, the music broke down into legendary bluesman Willie Dixon’s “Weak Brain, Narrow Mind”. Following the song’s explosive conclusion, a captivating John Bell introduced “Tickle the Truth”, which featured a beautiful tandem between Bell’s poetic lyrics and Herring’s lightning guitar licks as well as a hauntingly pristine piano by JoJo. Letting the excitement build, the band kicked into another romping instrumental, “B of D”, before annihilating a jagged version of “Sell, Sell” (“The next gonna be the best one of the year!”).Jimmy Herring’s high-voltage guitar riffs nearly caused an electrical blackout, so the band let the equipment cool off before playing a beautiful ode to their late lead guitarist Michael “Mikey” Houser with the developmental jam, “Space Wrangler”. To conclude the first set, the boys settled into a suave cover of Steve Winwood’s “Dear Mr. Fantasy”, which hasn’t been played since Gentlemen’s Night last year in Atlanta.Widespread Panic – “Dear Mr. Fantasy” [Steve Winwood cover][Video: WoodshedBlues]Upon return, the boys pulled out all the stops, splitting up “Bust It Big” with an enthusiastic cover of Talking Heads‘ “Life During Wartime” as the the jam sandwich. “Life During Wartime” contained scathing irony within its lyrics, giving a darker meaning to the dance-infused rhythm. Even “Bust It Big” had a reason for its place in the set-list with an identical tone of social awareness (“Beware of the man who builds monuments to himself”).The band didn’t linger on social commentary for long before moving on to brew the combustible concoction known to all as “Hatfield.” The song is based on the true story of a rainmaker being paid 10,000 dollars to cook up a rain potion for the drought-stricken city of Los Angeles. John Bell mesmerized with a whirlwind rap about how “Hatfield’s mama was making cookies, brewing beer, and playing a two-string banjo” while the children were playing “Cops and robbers… [and] combat.” The band kicked the tempo into high gear and never looked back, sizzling through “Junior”, a tribute to Junior Kimbrough, who is a musical peer on JoJo’s record label. Maintaining the intensity, Widespread Panic aced a momentous “Papa’s Home” complete with an extended percussive breakdown in the middle of the song highlighting Duane Trucks and Sonny Ortiz. Duane wore a Col. Bruce Hampton shirt as he played with crashing precision. Without stopping, the Panics segued into the dizzying maelstrom of “Tie Your Shoes”.After a short respite, the band kicked into “Gimme”, a sentimental tribute to longtime roadie Garrie Vareen’s birthday on which John Bell typically ad-libs the lyrics (“Gimme a lift here, Garrie, I’d give you my horse if I could”). A “Within You Without You” tease (for Garrie) was imbued into the smooth transition as an uplifting “Pleas” emerged. The background of stained glass on the state-of-the-art visual displays transformed the Park Theater into a sacred church for the band’s loyal disciples as holy music rang out from the elevated altar. To finish the second set, Dave Schools played the bouncing bass line of “Love Tractor” beneath the soaring guitar riffs of Herring to eventually shift songs flawlessly. The second set ended in explosive, barn-barning, boot-stomping Panic fashion with the crowd eagerly applauding and awaiting the encore.The boys returned to the stage with John Bell gesturing toward JoJo to commence the harmonious beauty of “This Part of Town”, a song that captured the relatable feeling of not only the blues but also musical brotherhood as a whole with lyrics “Life can be that way. But don’t give up, don’t give up, no, ‘Cause where there is love, there is hope.” It’s also very relatable to gamblers with the lines “I’ve been up and I’ve been down”. Best of luck out there, goodpeople.To end the first night of the Las Vegas run, Widespread Panic delivered a cover of Tom Petty’s “You Wreck Me” for the fourth time ever. The boys return to the stage tonight at the MGM Park, formerly known as the Montecarlo, to do the damn thing once again.For more information, head to the band’s website. Below, you can check out a handful of photos from the show courtesy of Steve O’Brien.Setlist: Widespread Panic | Park Theater | Las Vegas, NV | 10/26/18Set One: The Take Out > Goin’ Out West, Greta > Weak Brain, Narrow Mind, Tickle the Truth, B of D, Sell Sell, Space Wrangler, Dear Mr FantasySet Two: Bust It Big > Life During Wartime > Bust It Big, Hatfield, Junior, Papa’s Home > Drums > Papa’s Home > Tie Your Shoes, Gimme > Pleas > Love TractorEncore This Part of Town, You Wreck MeNotes: ‘Dear Mr Fantasy’ LTP 12/30/17 Atlanta; ‘Within You Without You’ (Beatles) tease before ‘Pleas’You can stream audio the show in its entirety via PanicStream.Widespread Panic | Park Theater @ MGM Park Casino | Las Vegas, NV | 10/26/18 | Photos: Steve O’Brien
Two Marines are aboard ship in the Mediterranean, readying their platoons for combat. Another just returned from seven months of intense fighting in Afghanistan. One Army officer is now a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford. Another just learned an Afghan language. One Navy ensign has traveled the world and steered a battleship through a storm. Another is a student pilot in Florida.These are just a few updates on the Harvard College graduates who in 2009 and 2010 left school as newly commissioned officers in the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps.Marine 2nd Lt. Daniel West ’09 is now aboard a speedy amphibious ship in the Mediterranean Sea. With him on the USS Mesa Verde is 2nd Lt. Domenico Pellegrini ’09, a friend since their freshman year at Harvard. Both are platoon commanders with the ground combat element of the 22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit, poised “for any crisis that may arise,” said West, “whether humanitarian aid or kinetic combat action.”Another 2009 classmate and marine infantry platoon commander is 2nd Lt. Joseph Kristol, who just returned from Afghanistan, “where his battalion saw some of the ugliest fighting to date in that country,” said West. Kristol serves with the 3rd Battalion, 5th Regiment — “3/5” — based at Camp Pendleton near San Diego. Last September, the unit arrived in the Sangin district of Helmand province, where Taliban flags flew everywhere, schools were closed, and local markets abandoned. Ahead of the 3/5 was a violent, seven-month grinder of combat — and the heaviest unit casualties so far in Afghanistan: 25 marines killed and close to 200 wounded.“It is truly a privilege to serve with Marines in combat,” wrote Kristol, who coordinated fire support for his company — and had to write letters home to the parents of two machine gunners killed in action. “Unfortunately, I learned firsthand that privilege has a huge price.”The Taliban flags, by the way, are gone.From their ship, West and Pellegrini struck a common chord with other Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) students who graduated from Harvard recently: They are grateful that relations have improved between their alma mater and the military. “It has been special to see the significant growth in relations between Harvard and the military since my freshman year,” wrote Pellegrini, “and I am lucky to have been a small part of it.”Navy Ensign Joshua Foote ’10 echoed that sentiment, saying, “I’m absolutely thrilled about the recent developments in Harvard’s relationship with the military, and very excited to hear that the Navy is re-establishing an ROTC program there.”On March 4, Harvard President Drew Faust and Navy Secretary Ray Mabus signed an agreement that will re-establish an ROTC formal presence on campus for the first time in nearly 40 years.“Our renewed relationship affirms the vital role that the members of our Armed Forces play in serving the nation and securing our freedoms, while also affirming inclusion and opportunity as powerful American ideals,” Faust said at the time. “It broadens the pathways for students to participate in an honorable and admirable calling and in so doing advances our commitment to both learning and service.”Under the agreement, Harvard will resume full and formal recognition of Naval ROTC on the effective date of the repeal of the law that disqualified openly gay men and lesbians from military service, which is expected to happen this summer.Foote is stationed in Yokosuka, Japan, as a combat information center officer aboard the USS John S. McCain, a guided-missile destroyer. “The best way to explain,” he said of his job, “is to think of the dark, neon-lit room you see in the movies that’s full of radar screens and people talking on radios and drawing on boards.” He said, “I own that room, and about half of the sailors who work in there work for me.”Foote has “been to Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Vietnam, and sailed in the Pacific Ocean, the Sea of Japan — and the Philippine, Yellow, East China, South China, and Sulu seas,” he wrote. “I have personally driven a multibillion-dollar warship a mile behind an aircraft carrier, at night, in the rain, with F-18 Hornets screaming overhead. … I’ve seen more stars in the night sky than can be seen anywhere on land, and the most beautiful sunsets you can imagine.”Foote participated in the rescue effort following the earthquake and tsunami that recently struck Japan, and was part of the emergency mobilization after North Korea fired artillery shells into a South Korean town last year. All this, and more, happened less than a year after he wrote his last term paper and took his last exam.Two of his 2010 classmates, also Navy ensigns, are in flight school in Florida: Christi Morrissey and Michael Kaehler.While waiting for flight training to start, Kaehler lived the peripatetic life of a young officer. He worked briefly at an ROTC unit at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where since 1976 Harvard students have taken their cadet military training. Then he worked as a Navy recruiter in San Francisco before reporting to Pensacola in September, “about the same time I would have finished my study card for the fall semester,” wrote Kaehler.U.S. Navy Ensign and aviation trainee Michael Kaehler (third from left) poses last fall in Pensacola, Fla., with classmates from his Aviation Preflight Indoctrination (API) course. Kaehler is a 2010 graduate of Harvard College. Photo courtesy of Michael KaehlerHe has since learned to pilot a Cessna 172, studied weather, flight rules, and the basics of aerodynamics, and has gone through survival training. “The most fun, surprisingly,” said Kaehler, was “getting strapped into a mock helicopter and dropped into a pool while blindfolded to practice escaping underwater from an aircraft.” He is now 12 flights into training on a turboprop T-34C, and will tackle aerobatics, night flight, and other requirements.Army 2nd Lt. Roxanne Bras ’09 is tackling intellectual aerobatics as a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford. Still an active duty officer, she will graduate with an M.Phil. in international relations in 2012. From February through August of last year, Bras was deployed to Afghanistan as an officer in an engineering unit. In one picture, she had an M-16 slung on her back. But toward the end of her time in that country, Bras worked on issues involving Afghan women.Army 2nd Lt. Roxanne Bras, Harvard College Class of 2009 and now a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, served from February through August 2010 with an engineering unit in Afghanistan. Bras (left) is administering an oath to a noncommissioned officer who re-enlisted. Photo courtesy of Roxanne BrasTravel, adventure, and challenge have come in all shapes for the eight Harvard ROTC graduates of 2009 and the 11 commissioned in 2010.Army 2nd Lt. Josué “Josh” Guerra ’10 trained for three months last fall at the Muscatatuck Center for Complex Operations in Indiana. He was learning Dari, one of the major languages of Afghanistan. Since February, he has been at Fort Benning, Ga., to learn squad- and platoon-level tactics, which are “mentally and physically demanding,” he wrote, “though not overwhelming.” Guerra will report for duty at Fort Drum, N.Y, home of the 10th Mountain Division, a light infantry unit.Marine 2nd Lt. Talya Havice ’10 has completed six months of officer training, and a five-month intelligence officer course. She is headed to Camp Pendleton in a few weeks.Navy Ensign Olivia Volkoff ’10 is an engineer at Naval Reactors headquarters in Washington, D.C., where she is training on the design and maintenance of nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers. “This experience has left me totally in awe of the work it takes to take a ship from idea to construction to sea,” she wrote in an email.“It’s been a really incredible year,” Volkoff added. “It’s hard to believe it’s already been a year.”Army 2nd Lt. Karl Kmiecik ’10 has started his medical training at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School to become an Army doctor.Last October, Marine 2nd Lt. Shawna Sinnott ’10 reported to the 26-week Basic School, where new officers learn tactics and other battlefield basics.She is happy to be “directly applying the knowledge I gained at Harvard through my special concentration in ‘Understanding Terrorism,’” wrote Sinnott from Quantico, Va. “Nowhere else would I have been able to create such an interdisciplinary concentration, learning from experts in every academic field. With this basis, I am much more confident in how I will be able to approach the threat and aggressively address it.” After four months in Virginia, she will be stationed at Camp Pendleton near San Diego.Foote said his Harvard education applies to the military life less directly, but still had a powerful positive effect.“I met people from Harvard from every kind of background and learned how to interact with them and relate to them,” he said in an email from Japan. “This is essential for a naval officer.”The intensity of those undergraduate years helped too, said Foote. “The workload is high, the tempo is fast-paced, and the standard by which your work is judged is exacting. Having entered such an environment with four years worth of experience as a student at Harvard, I was able to make the transition without difficulty.”Tradition has helped too, he said. “In a less tangible way, Harvard’s longstanding history with the military has affected my service as well,” Foote wrote. “The men and women of Harvard have a tradition of service that dates to the Pequot War, and I have been and will continue to be honored to carry on that tradition.”