1. The food consumption of an animal. both at the individual and the population level, is an essential component for assessing the impact of that animal on its ecosystem. As such, measurements of the energy requirements of marine top-predators are extremely valuable as they can be used to estimate these food requirements. 2. The present study used heart rate to estimate the rate of energy expenditure of gentoo penguins during the breeding season. The average daily metabolic rate (ADMR) of penguins when one adult was necessarily present at the nest (incubating eggs or guarding small chicks; IG, 4.76 W kg(-1)) was significantly lower than that when both parents forage concurrently during the major period of chick growth (CR: 6.88 W kg(-1)). 3. The ADMR of a bird was found to be dependent on a number of factors, including the day within the breeding season and the percentage time that the bird spent foraging during that day. 4. When they were ashore, the estimated metabolic rate of IG birds (3.94 W kg(-1)) was significantly lower than that of CR birds (5.93 W kg(-1)). However, the estimated metabolic rates when the birds were at sea during these periods were essentially the same (8.58 W kg(-1)). 5. The heart rate recorded when the penguins were submerged (128 beats min(-1)) was significantly higher than that recorded from resting animals when ashore (89 beats min(-1)). However, it was lower than that recorded from birds that were swimming in a water channel (177 beats min(-1)). This might indicate that, although primarily aerobic in nature, there was an anaerobic component to metabolism during diving. An alternative interpretation is that the metabolic requirement during diving was lower than when the birds,were swimming with access to air. 6. There was a significant decline in abdominal temperature. from 38.8 degreesC at the start of a diving bout to 36.2 degreesC at the end, which may, indicate a reduction in overall metabolic rate during submersion. This in turn may explain the lowered heart rate. 7. In the present study. we have shown that the metabolic rate of the gentoo penguin varies during the breeding season. The relatively constant metabolic rate of the birds when at sea could represent an upper physiological limit that the birds are unable to exceed. If so, it will only be possible for the birds to increase foraging effort by diving more frequently and/or for longer periods thus reducing their foraging efficiency (the energy gained during foraging vs. energy spent gaining that food). During years when food is scarce, this reduction in foraging efficiency may have a profound influence on the reproductive productivity of the gentoo penguin.
– Advertisement – The Los Angeles Lakers are closing in on a trade that would see them acquire Oklahoma City Thunder guard Dennis Schroder. In exchange, the Thunder will receive guard Danny Green and the 28th overall pick in Wednesday’s NBA Draft, according to reports from ESPN’s Adrian Wojnarowski and The Athletic’s Shams Charania.- Advertisement – Schroder was one of the most impactful bench players in the NBA last season as he averaged 18.9 points, four assists and 3.6 rebounds.At one stage he had been tipped as a frontrunner for the Sixth Man of the Year award, which was eventually won by the Los Angeles Clippers’ Montrezl Harrell. Go inside the locker room and watch the Los Angeles Lakers’ celebrations after they were crowned NBA champions – Advertisement – 1:26 The 27-year-old has averaged a career 14.1 points, 4.6 assists and 2.8 rebounds across 496 games, 177 of which he started, having spent five seasons with the Atlanta Hawks prior to landing in Oklahoma in 2018.Green averaged eight points, 3.3 rebounds and 1.3 assists for the Lakers last season, becoming a three-time NBA champion following previous wins with the San Antonio Spurs and Toronto Raptors.The 33-year-old may not be the only departure in LA, with reports suggesting veteran point guard Rajon Rondo is set to decline his $2.6m player option in view of hitting free agency.He averaged 7.1 points, five assists and three rebounds in 48 games last season en route to his second NBA championship victory.Want to watch even more of the NBA and WNBA but don’t have Sky Sports? Get the Sky Sports Action and Arena pack, click here. – Advertisement –
Olympiacos 0 Juventus 2: Bianconeri book last-16 berth Rob Lancaster Last updated 1 year ago 05:39 12/6/17 Emilio Andreoli/Getty Images Juventus overcame the absence of key players to secure second spot in Champions League Group D with victory over Olympiacos. Juan Cuadrado and Federico Bernardeschi found the net as an understrength Juventus clinched a place in the last 16 of the Champions League with a 2-0 win away at Olympiacos.Despite being without injured stalwarts Gianluigi Buffon and Giorgio Chiellini, Massimiliano Allegri’s side coped comfortably in Piraeus to reach the knockout stages for a fourth successive season.While they needed two second-half goals to win the reverse fixture in Turin, Cuadrado’s close-range finish in the 15th minute set them on course to complete the double over their Greek opponents. Article continues below Editors’ Picks Lyon treble & England heartbreak: The full story behind Lucy Bronze’s dramatic 2019 Liverpool v Man City is now the league’s biggest rivalry and the bitterness is growing Megan Rapinoe: Born & brilliant in the U.S.A. A Liverpool legend in the making: Behind Virgil van Dijk’s remarkable rise to world’s best player Wojciech Szczesny, standing in for Buffon, who was ruled out with a calf complaint, was required to make two smart saves to preserve a clean sheet, though El Fardou Ben Nabouhane hit the crossbar as full-time approached.But late substitute Bernardeschi capped a solid display by curling home a fine finish in the 89th minute, ensuring it was Sporting who dropped into the Europa League.While Juventus finish behind Barcelona in Group D, the Serie A champions – beaten 4-1 by Real Madrid in last season’s final – will be one of the second seeds to avoid in the draw for the next round.FULL-TIME: Olympiacos 0-2 JuventusJob well done boys!!! #OLYJuve #ForzaJuve #FinoAllaFine pic.twitter.com/5SvLYkfDQG— JuventusFC (@juventusfcen) December 5, 2017Any concerns in the visiting squad about missing out on qualification were eased when the busy Cuadrado popped up in the right place to break the deadlock.The Colombia international was left with the simple task of tapping home Alex Sandro’s low cross from the left to score his fourth goal of the season but his first in Europe.Silvio Proto had already turned aside a curling effort from Paulo Dybala before conceding, while an unconventional slide tackle from the Olympiacos goalkeeper prevented Cuadrado doubling both his and Juventus’ tally midway through the first half.At the other end, Szczesny enjoyed a comfortable ride in the visiting goal until Uros Djurdjevic forced him into a smart reactionary stop four minutes before the break.The Poland international – who had fumbled his only other save during a tepid opening half – stretched out a leg to impressively keep out the striker’s close-range header at the back post.Olympiacos coach Takis Lemonis sent on Marko Marin for the start of the second half in the hope of inspiring his side to an unlikely comeback.The change so nearly had the desired effect when the substitute broke clear of an attempted offside trap to get a clear sight of goal, only for the alert Szczesny to race from his line and smother his attempted chip.The hosts felt they were also denied a clear penalty soon after when Bjorn Engels collided with Blaise Matuidi at a corner, though the contact appeared accidental as the Juventus player only had eyes for the ball.When Ben Nabouhane sent a header against the woodwork in the 82nd minute, Olympiacos must have realised their luck was out.Juventus rubbed salt in the home side’s wounds too, adding a second before the final whistle as Bernardeschi – who had replaced Cuadrado in the 84th minute – found the far corner of the net with his left foot after cutting in from the right wing.90′ – GOALLLLLLLL!!!!!! @fbernardeschi makes it 0-2!!!!!!#OLYJuve pic.twitter.com/H5B54mQQXL— JuventusFC (@juventusfcen) December 5, 2017Key Opta facts:- Juventus have kept a clean sheet for four consecutive games (all competitions) for the first time since April.- There were 44 minutes between Juve’s last shot in the first half (37th minute) and their first in the second (81st minute).- Andrea Barzagli made his 250th appearance with Juve in all competitions. read more