Image of Sirius A and Sirius B taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Sirius B, which is a white dwarf, can be seen as a faint pinprick of light to the lower left of the much brighter Sirius A. Image: NASA, ESA (Phys.org) — Most any chemistry student when asked, will say that there are just two ways atoms bond to make molecules: covalent and ionic. In the former, atoms are bonded together by sharing electrons, in the latter it’s due to the transfer of electrons from one atom to another leading to a Coulombic attraction between the ions. Now however, it appears there is a third kind of bond, though it doesn’t exist here on Earth. E. I. Tellgren, Kai K. Lange, T. Helgaker and M. R. Hoffmann from the University of Oslo, Norway and the University of North Dakota in the US have found that some molecules can form and hold together due to extremely high magnetic fields. As they write in their paper published in the journal Science, their calculations suggest that such molecules likely exist near white dwarf stars. Explore further More information: A Paramagnetic Bonding Mechanism for Diatomics in Strong Magnetic Fields, Science 20 July 2012: Vol. 337 no. 6092 pp. 327-331. DOI: 10.1126/science.1219703ABSTRACTElementary chemistry distinguishes two kinds of strong bonds between atoms in molecules: the covalent bond, where bonding arises from valence electron pairs shared between neighboring atoms, and the ionic bond, where transfer of electrons from one atom to another leads to Coulombic attraction between the resulting ions. We present a third, distinct bonding mechanism: perpendicular paramagnetic bonding, generated by the stabilization of antibonding orbitals in their perpendicular orientation relative to an external magnetic field. In strong fields such as those present in the atmospheres of white dwarfs (on the order of 105 teslas) and other stellar objects, our calculations suggest that this mechanism underlies the strong bonding of H2 in the triplet state and of He2 in the singlet state, as well as their preferred perpendicular orientation in the external field. Citation: Chemists discover new type of molecular bond near white dwarf stars (2012, July 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-07-chemists-molecular-bond-white-dwarf.html German team finds a way to link boron atoms with a triple bond Journal information: Science This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Because it’s impossible, at least at this time, to create a magnetic field anywhere near as strong as that found near a white dwarf star, the researchers turned to quantum chemical simulations (full configuration-interaction) focusing on hydrogen atoms and the simple hydrogen molecule H2. At extremely hot temperatures, such as would exist near a white dwarf, the covalent bond that normally holds the molecule together wouldn’t survive and the molecule would come apart. But if there were a strong enough magnetic field (such as exists near a white dwarf) the spin states of the two atoms could align with the magnetic field (rather than exist as opposed) the molecule could bond and continue to stay that way. And that’s exactly what the team’s calculations showed, they’re calling it – perpendicular paramagnetic bonding.To further test their ideas, the team also ran helium through the simulations and found that they too could form perpendicular paramagnetic bonding of He2 molecules, though they were less stable.The researchers note that because of the different characteristics of hydrogen or helium molecules bonded together through magnetic forces near white dwarf stars, their spectrum should be different as well, which means that they should be detectable using telescopes tuned properly, assuming they exist in sufficient numbers.And just because such a strong magnetic field cannot currently be created in the lab, it doesn’t mean it can’t ever happen. If it does become possible, not only would magnetically bonded molecules be observable, but they might also be controllable by adjusting the amount of magnetism, paving the way perhaps to a quantum memory computer. © 2012 Phys.org
© 2013 Phys.org Citation: Atheer Labs demos 3-D virtual object-manipulation goggles (2013, July 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-07-atheer-labs-demos-d-virtual.html Startup glasses overlay Internet on real world (Phys.org) —Atheer Labs has announced the development of a new type of technology that allows for creating and manipulating virtual three-dimensional objects via goggles or by other types of devices. Calling it a Mobile 3D Platform, the technology is meant to function on a variety of different types of devices running different types of operating systems, such as Android or other open source systems. More information: Press release: www.atheerlabs.com/press-relea … e_Mobile_3D_PlatformVideo demo: allthingsd.com/video/?video_id … 94-9255-66EBD13A940D Devices running the system are capable of creating and displaying virtual 3D objects which the viewer sees by looking through a transparent screen. The company demonstrated its new technology at this year’s Wall Street Journal’s D: All Things Digital conference. Using it, a person is able to pop bubbles that appear in the air in front of them, for example, by simply reaching out and “poking” them with a fingertip. Another application allows users to slice virtual fruit with their finger.To create such effects, the system combines augmented reality with sensors similar to those in a Kinect device, incorporating a gyroscope, accelerometer and Wi-Fi antenna. That means the virtual objects that are created can come from the Internet. Representatives for the company at the conference said the goal is create a transformative device that will allow people to access data and information in an entirely new way. Natural gestures, they contend, are the means by which truly immersive devices should operate. To that end, devices running the new system are controlled by voice commands and hand gestures.The new technology, in essence, takes what Google and others are trying to achieve with project Glass and other similar devices and adds both a 3D element and the ability to manipulate them. Virtual objects can be created that appear to exist in the real world. A person could read a newspaper, company reps noted, using goggles outfitted with their new technology that have moving pictures similar to those seen in the Harry Potter movies. Animated objects could literally leap off the page, grabbing the reader’s attention.Atheer Labs is also demonstrating restraint with the new technology; users are allowed to choose which sort of information reaches their device and an option is included that disallows the device from working in an area where such devices have been banned. They added also that the new technology is still under development and thus no time frame for delivering a product has been set. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B Marsh Rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris) at Green Cay wetlands, Delray Beach, Florida. Credit: Tomfriedel/birdphotos.com, Wikipedia, CC BY 3.0 Citation: Invasive Burmese pythons shown to be reducing marsh rabbit population in Everglades (2015, March 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-03-invasive-burmese-pythons-shown-marsh.html © 2015 Phys.org A sneaky snake: Teams hunt for rock pythons in Everglades Marsh rabbits are native to the Everglades, and like most rabbits reproduce at a very high rate (approximately six litters each year, with each litter having multiple young). Because of that, scientists have been skeptical about a single predator being capable of dramatically reducing their numbers. But still, something has, of that there has been no doubt. Marsh rabbits are very nearly disappearing from some areas—many have blamed the Burmese python, a large snake that has been in the news a lot of late due to the many problems it has created for animals and humans alike in south Florida. In this new effort, the researchers sought to learn whether the blame for the rabbit decline could be attributed solely to the arrival of the pythons.The researchers released 80 marsh rabbits into two different parts of the park—in parts known to be heavily populated by pythons and in parts where no pythons were living. By retrieving the carcasses of dead rabbits over a nine month period, the researchers were able to determine what killed them. In the areas where there were no pythons, other predators proved to be the primary killer. But in areas where there were a lot of pythons, they found that the snakes accounted for approximately two thirds of those that were killed, which the researchers note, is not sustainable over a long period of time—that means at the current rate, the pythons are going to eliminate marsh rabbits (and possibly other animals) entirely from the park.The researchers conclude that Burmese pythons are a serious threat to the ecosystem in the park and that the threat will likely spread as the snake extends its range. More information: Marsh rabbit mortalities tie pythons to the precipitous decline of mammals in the everglades, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rspb.2015.0120 AbstractTo address the ongoing debate over the impact of invasive species on native terrestrial wildlife, we conducted a large-scale experiment to test the hypothesis that invasive Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were a cause of the precipitous decline of mammals in Everglades National Park (ENP). Evidence linking pythons to mammal declines has been indirect and there are reasons to question whether pythons, or any predator, could have caused the precipitous declines seen across a range of mammalian functional groups. Experimentally manipulating marsh rabbits, we found that pythons accounted for 77% of rabbit mortalities within nine months of their translocation to ENP and that python predation appeared to preclude the persistence of rabbit populations in ENP. On control sites, outside of the park, no rabbits were killed by pythons and 71% of attributable marsh rabbit mortalities were classified as mammal predations. Burmese pythons pose a serious threat to the faunal communities and ecological functioning of the Greater Everglades Ecosystems that will likely spread as python populations expand their range Explore further (Phys.org)—A small team of researchers working in the Florida Everglades, with affiliations to several institutions in the state, has found that an invasive species of snake, the Burmese python, appears to be responsible for a drastic decline in marsh rabbit populations in the park. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the team describes how they placed rabbits in a section of the park and monitored how they were killed to finger the culprit. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(Phys.org)—A pair of researchers at Duke University has built a library of protein data that outlines the specific amino acid sequences that control changes of many elastin proteins. In their paper published in the journal Nature Materials, Felipe García Quiroz and Ashutosh Chilkoti describe their research, the making of their library, and their belief that what they have created will help in the development of new synthetic designs for possible use in medical applications. Citation: Researchers develop a library of elastin-like proteins to help in creating synthetic designs (2015, September 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-09-library-elastin-like-proteins-synthetic.html Proteins assemble and disassemble on command This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Sequence heuristics to encode phase behaviour in intrinsically disordered protein polymers, Nature Materials (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nmat4418AbstractProteins and synthetic polymers that undergo aqueous phase transitions mediate self-assembly in nature and in man-made material systems. Yet little is known about how the phase behaviour of a protein is encoded in its amino acid sequence. Here, by synthesizing intrinsically disordered, repeat proteins to test motifs that we hypothesized would encode phase behaviour, we show that the proteins can be designed to exhibit tunable lower or upper critical solution temperature (LCST and UCST, respectively) transitions in physiological solutions. We also show that mutation of key residues at the repeat level abolishes phase behaviour or encodes an orthogonal transition. Furthermore, we provide heuristics to identify, at the proteome level, proteins that might exhibit phase behaviour and to design novel protein polymers consisting of biologically active peptide repeats that exhibit LCST or UCST transitions. These findings set the foundation for the prediction and encoding of phase behaviour at the sequence level. Journal information: Nature Materials © 2015 Phys.org Explore further Proteins are organic compounds essential to all living organisms, they are especially prevalent in components that have structure, such as muscle, skin, hair, etc. They provide structure by self-forming into different shapes under different conditions, two of which are solubility and temperature. Proteins are made of sequences of amino acids—the order and type of which drive the shape of the protein when certain conditions are met. Scientists still do not quite understand how proteins self assemble into the specific 3D shapes they take, nor which amino acids lead to which shapes, or indeed, how the order in which they exist contributes to those shapes. To help provide a better understanding of how it all works, Quiroz and Chilkoti set about building a library of all the known elastin-like proteins, along with the shapes they take under different conditions. They based it on the sequences of five key amino acids found in the fibrous protein typically found in connective tissue, such as muscles. They then set about testing each entry in the library by growing samples of E. coli engineered to produce proteins that folded into different shapes under different conditions. Most specifically noted was under which conditions the proteins shifted from being soluble to non-soluble and vice-versa. That work led them to developing a set of rules that loosely defined which amino acid sequences would result in which shapes under which conditions.The research duo acknowledge that their rules are more like guidelines, but suggest the basis of what they have built can not only be made stronger with more research by them and others, but can be used to assist in creating synthetic proteins for use in developing targeted drugs. One example would be protein capsules that remain insoluble inside the body until a certain condition is met, at which point, a medication would be released.
© 2016 Phys.org Seeing the benefits of failure shapes kids’ beliefs about intelligence Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Larkmead School. Credit: CC-BY-SA-2.5,2.0,1.0 Citation: Growth mindset found to temper impact of poverty on student achievement (2016, July 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-07-growth-mindset-temper-impact-poverty.html Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences The concept of intelligence is difficult to pin down, much less measure. So, too, is answering the question of whether it is possible for a person to become more intelligent by trying—most scientists in the field believe that it is mostly fixed at birth. But because it cannot be proven, people tend to have their own opinions—those who believe that a person can become more intelligent through hard work are referred to in psychological terms as having a growth mindset. Conversely, those who believe that intelligence is fixed at birth are referred to has having a fixed mindset.In order to gain some insight into whether such beliefs can have an impact on academic performance, the researchers worked with the public school system in Chile in 2012—they tested 75 percent of the entire class of 10th grade students and then monitored their academic performance. In addition to demographic questions, students were also asked questions about whether they believed intelligence was fixed at birth or whether it could be improved through hard work, such as by studying schoolwork.In studying the data, the researchers found that as expected students living in poverty tended to have much less academic success. They also found that students living in poverty were much more likely to have a fixed mindset. But they also found that those students living in poverty who had a growth mindset tended to do much better academically than those living in poverty who had a fixed mindset—so much better that their scores were nearly equal to students who were not living in poverty but who had a fixed mindset. These results, the researchers suggest, indicate that targeted interventions may help low-achieving students living in poverty perform at a higher level; however, the researchers are quick to point out that they are not advocating substituting mindset manipulation for poverty reduction programs. (Phys.org)—A trio of researchers from Stanford University has found that high school children living in poverty who have a growth mindset tend to do better in school than those with a fixed mindset. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Susana Claro, David Paunesku and Carol Dweck describe a study they carried out with high school sophomores in Chile, what they learned, and what their findings may indicate regarding children, education and poverty. More information: Susana Claro et al. Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1608207113AbstractTwo largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students’ beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students’ mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level.
© 2018 Phys.org A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. In their paper published on the open access site, Science Advances the group describes the chip and why they believe developing it was important. Explore further Largest-ever 3-D quantum chip for boosting analog quantum computing Citation: A chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks (2018, May 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-chip-two-dimensional-quantum.html The quantum chip with waveguide structures visible. Credit: Xianmin Jin The quantum chip with waveguide structures visible. Credit: Xianmin Jin Journal information: Science Advances More information: Hao Tang et al. Experimental two-dimensional quantum walk on a photonic chip, Science Advances (2018). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat3174AbstractQuantum walks, in virtue of the coherent superposition and quantum interference, have exponential superiority over their classical counterpart in applications of quantum searching and quantum simulation. The quantum-enhanced power is highly related to the state space of quantum walks, which can be expanded by enlarging the photon number and/or the dimensions of the evolution network, but the former is considerably challenging due to probabilistic generation of single photons and multiplicative loss. We demonstrate a two-dimensional continuous-time quantum walk by using the external geometry of photonic waveguide arrays, rather than the inner degree of freedoms of photons. Using femtosecond laser direct writing, we construct a large-scale three-dimensional structure that forms a two-dimensional lattice with up to 49 × 49 nodes on a photonic chip. We demonstrate spatial two-dimensional quantum walks using heralded single photons and single photon–level imaging. We analyze the quantum transport properties via observing the ballistic evolution pattern and the variance profile, which agree well with simulation results. We further reveal the transient nature that is the unique feature for quantum walks of beyond one dimension. An architecture that allows a quantum walk to freely evolve in all directions and at a large scale, combining with defect and disorder control, may bring up powerful and versatile quantum walk machines for classically intractable problems. Play The fabrication of a quantum chip using femtosecond laser direct writing technique. Credit: Xianmin Jin The three-dimensional chip, the team reports, was created using a technique called femtosecond writing. It uses the external geometry of photonic waveguide arrays as a means for carrying out the quantum walks using a single photon. They note also that they tested the chip by observing patterns and variance profiles and comparing them to simulation studies. They suggest further that in addition to making progress toward a truly useful quantum computer, the chip could also be used to boost the performance of analog quantum computing or quantum simulators.If researchers can create quantum computers with very large, or even unlimited size grids, it might be possible to create and use networks as complex as the human nervous system. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Quantum walks are the quantum version of classical random walks, which are a mathematical means for describing a natural random walk, e.g., simply wandering around randomly. To describe such walks, mathematicians and computer scientists use probability distribution grids that show a current position and possible next steps. Quantum walks are used to build models that depict randomly grown, sophisticated and complex networks such as the human neural network. They can also be used to create networks for actual use in applications, and might one day be used in quantum-based robots.As the researchers note, a quantum computer should provide exponential advantages over classical systems due to their nature. To that end, scientists have been working to implement quantum walks in a physical machine as part of developing a truly useful quantum computer. In this new effort, the researchers report that they have developed a chip that carries out quantum walks on a two-dimensional 49×49 grid—the largest created so far by any team. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Credit: CC0 Public Domain Study of zircon crystals casts doubt on evidence for early development of magnetic field © 2019 Science X Network Planetary scientists have found strong evidence that suggests the Earth has an inner and an outer core. The inner core is believed to be solid, while the outer core is made up of molten material. Prior evidence has also indicated that the entire core was once liquid, but as the interior cooled, the innermost part began to crystallize. It is at this point that scientists disagree—some suggest the start of solidification began as far back as 2.5 billion years ago. Others believe it was much more recent—perhaps as recent as just 500 million years ago. In this new effort, the researchers have found evidence that supports the latter theory.The work by the researchers involved carefully analyzing plagioclase and clinopyroxene crystals, which have been dated to approximately 565 million years ago. The crystals are important because they contain bits of metal called inclusions. The inclusions are very small and needle-shaped and aligned themselves with the Earth’s magnetic field as they became embedded in the crystal. Since the Earth’s magnetic field is generated by activity in the inner core, the inclusions are a means of determining the state of the core during the time when the crystals formed. The researchers report that their analysis showed that the magnetic field was significantly weaker than it is today, suggesting that solidification of the core must have occurred soon thereafter or the magnetic field would have collapsed altogether. The reason it did not, theory suggests, is because as the inner core solidified, he magnetic field became stronger. Explore further More information: Richard K. Bono et al. Young inner core inferred from Ediacaran ultra-low geomagnetic field intensity, Nature Geoscience (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-018-0288-0 A quartet of researchers from the University of Rochester and the University of California has found evidence of the starting period for the solidification of Earth’s core. In their paper published in the journal Nature Geoscience, Richard Bono, John Tarduno, Francis Nimmo and Rory Cottrell describe their analysis of ancient crystals found in eastern Canada, what they found, and why they believe their results offer clues about the formation of Earth’s inner core. Peter Driscoll, with the Carnegie Institution for Science, has written a News and Views piece on the study in the same journal issue. Citation: Ancient crystals offer evidence of the start of Earth’s core solidifying (2019, January 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-ancient-crystals-evidence-earth-core.html Journal information: Nature Geoscience This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Kicking off the celebrations for America’s Independence day on fourth of July, the American Center will feature blockbuster movies in the capital. Organised in collaboration with Motion Picture Distribution Association (MPDA), India office, and Cinedarbaar, the American Centre will be screening Star Trek into Darkness,The Great Gatsby, After Earth and A Good Day To Die Hard from the beginning of July. The Annual Independence Day celebration at the American Center attracts large numbers of young Delhites. The week-long celebration will include interaction with U.S. Embassy officials and quiz contests on a number of topics including IPR, followed by a film screening. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’While the United States of America celebrates its Independence day across the country with parades, fireworks, and backyard barbeques in honor of the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the capital joins in with these special screenings. Assistant Cultural Affairs Officer of the American Center, Natalia Susak says, ‘At the American Center, we are proud to mark the occasion this year together with the MPDA, India office and Cinedarbaar. We are bringing our audiences the latest blockbuster films. After all: a love for cinema unites the people of our two nations.’ Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixSharing his thoughts, Mr. Uday Singh, Managing Director, MPDA (India) said ‘We need to continue to encourage audiences to appreciate and respect creative works and a legitimate market place for films.’ From JJ Abrams’ explosive action thriller Star Trek into Darkness to John Moore’s riveting screenplay of a deadly plot in Chernobyl in A Good Day to Die Hard, the Independence day screenings offer you the best of American cinema this July.
At a time when politicians are engaged in spreading mistrust among two major communities – Hindu and Muslims, for their own vested interests, here is group of Muslims who are more concerned about bringing both the communities closer.These Muslims have no reservation in reciting Gayatri Mantras inside the mosque and talk about similarity between religions in their monthly communal harmony meetings.’The members of both the communities- Hindu and Muslim, should develop a habit of sitting together and exchange ideas. There are a lot of similarities between both the religions but the language is the only difference,’ said Arif Beg, founder president of Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Anjuman Amandost Insandost. The septuagenarian Muslim scholar has been organising the communal harmony meetings on first Sunday of every month since for the last 30 years. The meetings are organised in a old mosque in Old Delhi area- Makki Masji Mehdiyan.’I don’t know if I would be able to prevent youths from straying and bring both the communities on right track together for betterment of the society but I am confident that it a right step in right direction,’ he added.Beg, has been Minister of State in central government during 1977-79, he left BJP in 1999 to join Congress but rejoined BJP in 2003. The meetings are organised in a old mosque in Old Delhi area- Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixMakki Masji Mehdiyan.’The problems of all such issues is lack of education and most importantly moral education. The day parents will understand the importance of education these problems would perish from our society,’ said Beg. Unlike other Muslims clerics he is against the reservation for any community. ‘Dr B R Amebedar has demanded reservation in jobs only for 10 years but we have carrying it even today,’ he added stressing on the fact that a lot needs to change.
The 60th Britannia Filmfare Awards 2014 will be held on January 31, 2015 in Mumbai. Recognising the best talent in the industry, the 60th Britannia Filmfare Awards is all set to roll out the red carpet. Let’s take a look at the nominations. Alia Bhatt and Arjun Kapoor starer romantic comedy 2 States is leading the 60th Filmfare Awards with seven nominations, followed by Kangana Ranaut’s comedy drama Queen which has been named in five different categories. Also Read – A fresh blend of fameThe sleeper hits of 2014 have left behind big-budget blockbusters PK, Happy New Year and Kick.2 States has been nominated in various categories, including Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Male), Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Female), Best Music and Best Playback Singer (Male).On the other hand, Kangana’s Queen stands a chance to win in categories including Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor in a Leading Role (Female), Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Female) and Best Music. Also Read – Martin Freeman confirms ‘Black Panther’ returnApart from Queen and 2 States, the Best Film category includes Mary Kom, Haider and PK.Abhishek Varman (2 States), Anurag Kashyap (Ugly), Rajkumar Hirani (PK), Vikas Bahl (Queen) and Vishal Bhardwaj (Haider) are in the race for the Best Director title.Despite striking gold at the box office with Kick and Happy New Year, Bollywood’s leading Khans – Salman and Shah Rukh – have been neglected in the Best Actor in a Leading Role category. However, Aamir Khan is nominated for his satirical comedy-drama PK alongside Akshay Kumar (Holiday), Hrithik Roshan (Bang Bang!), Randeep Hooda (Rang Rasiya) and Shahid Kapoor (Haider). Actresses Alia Bhatt (Highway), Kangana Ranaut (Queen), Madhuri Dixit (Dedh Ishqiya), Priyanka Chopra (Mary Kom), Rani Mukerji (Mardaani) and Sonam Kapoor (Khoobsurat) are competing for the Best Actress trophy.In Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Male) category, Abhishek Bachchan (Happy New Year), Kay Kay Menon (Haider), Riteish Deshmukh (Ek Villain), Ronit Roy (2 States) and Tahir Raj Bhasin (Mardaani) have been nominated.The competition for the Supporting Actress accolades will be between Amrita Singh (2 States), Dimple Kapadia (Finding Fanny), Juhi Chawla (Gulaab Gang), Lisa Haydon (Queen) and Tabu (Haider).Although music maestro A.R. Rahman has not been included for Best Music category, there is a tough fight between Amit Trivedi (Queen), Anupam Amod, Arko Pravo Mukherjee, Yo Yo Honey Singh, Mithoon and Pritam (Yaariyan), Himesh Reshammiya, Meet Bros Anjjan and Yo Yo Honey Singh (Kick), Mithoon, Ankit Tiwari and SOCH (Ek Villain) and Shankar-Eshaan-Loy (2 States).For Best Lyrics, this year Amitabh Bhattacharya for Zehnaseeb (Hasee Toh Phasee), Gulzar for Bismil (Haider), Irshad Kamil for Patakha guddi (Highway), Kausar Munir for Suno na sangemarmar (Youngistaan) and Rashmi Singh for Muskurane ki wajah (CityLights) will be competing with each other.Singer Ankit Tiwari for Galliyan (Ek Villain), Arijit Singh for Mast magan (2 States) and Suno na sangemarmar (Youngistaan), Benny Dayal for Locha-E-Ulfat (2 States) and Shekhar Ravjiani for Zehnaseeb (Hasee Toh Phasee) are in the race for Best Playback Singer (Male) category.For the same award in female category, Jyoti Nooran and Sultana Nooran for Patakha guddi (Highway), Kanika Kapoor for Baby doll (Ragini MMS 2), Rekha Bhardwaj for Humari atariya pe (Dedh Ishqiya), Shreya Ghoshal for Manwa lage (Happy New Year) and Sona Mahapatra for Naina (Khoobsurat) have been nominated.The complete nomination list is available on filmfare.com, while the awards ceremony will take place Jan 31 in Mumbai.