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Some measurements of turbulence over an antarctic ice shelf

first_imgProfiles of wind speed, temperature and turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum in the lowest 32 m have been measured at a station on an antarctic ice shelf. During the antarctic winter the surface layer often shows strong static stability, with temperature gradients as large as 1 Km−1 in the lowest few metres. the surface inversion is destroyed during periods of high wind speed but the wind profile shows significant deviation from the expected logarithmic form under such conditions. Measurements of stress at 5 m indicate that the roughness length of the snow surface is about lO−4 m. At 5 m height, the variations of the dimensionless wind shear, ϕm, and potential temperature gradient, ϕT, agree with previously determined forms of the Monin‐Obukhov similarity functions. Above 5 m, the behaviour of ϕm and ϕT is only qualitatively similar and surface‐layer similarity theory does not provide a good description of the profiles. Turbulence length scales have been deduced from vertical velocity power spectra. Under near‐neutral conditions, the ratio of turbulence length scale to measurement height is observed to decrease with increasing height of measurement. This observation is consistent with the variation of turbulence length scale with height implied by the measurements of ϕm. It is suggested that the stability of the overlying atmosphere restricts the depth of the turbulent boundary layer and hence the length scales of turbulence within this layer. Increasing stability causes a decrease of turbulence length scales at all levels. The ratios of turbulence kinetic energy to stress and temperature variance to heat flux are examined. Measurements are somewhat scattered, but the distribution of values varies little with height or stability. the form of the distribution suggests that large‐scale motions, possibly internal gravity waves, may be playing an important role in boundary‐layer processes.last_img read more

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Scaling of metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in teleost fish

first_img1. We examined published studies relating resting oxygen consumption to body mass and temperature in post-larval teleost fish. The resulting database comprised 138 studies of 69 species (representing 28 families and 12 orders) living over a temperature range of c. 40 °C. 2. Resting metabolic rate (Rb; mmol oxygen gas h–1) was related to body mass (M; wet mass, g) by Rb = aMb, where a is a constant and b the scaling exponent. The model was fitted by least squares linear regression after logarithmic transformation of both variables. The mean value of scaling exponent, b, for the 69 individual species was 0·79 (SE 0·11). The general equation for all teleost fish was 1nRb = 0·80(1nM) – 5·43. 3. The relationship between resting oxygen consumption and environmental temperature for a 50-g fish was curvilinear. A typical tropical fish at 30°C requires approximately six times as much oxygen for resting metabolism as does a polar fish at 0°C. This relationship could be fitted by several statistical models, of which the Arrhenius model is probably the most appropriate. The Arrhenius model for the resting metabolism of 69 species of teleost fish, corrected to a standard body mass of 50 g, was 1nRb = 15·7 – 5·02.T–1, where T is absolute temperature (103 × K). 4. The Arrhenius model fitted to all 69 species exhibited a lower thermal sensitivity of resting metabolism (mean Q10 = 1·83 over the range 0–30 °C) than typical within-species acclimation studies (median Q10 = 2·40, n = 14). This suggests that evolutionary adaptation has reduced the overall thermal sensitivity of resting metabolism across species. Analysis of covariance indicated that the relationships between resting metabolic rate and temperature for various taxa (orders) showed similar slopes but significantly different mean rates. 5. Analysis of the data for perciform fish provided no support for metabolic cold adaptation (the hypothesis that polar fish show a resting metabolic rate higher than predicted from the overall rate/temperature relationship established for temperate and tropical species). 6. Taxonomic variation in mean resting metabolic rate showed no relationship to phylogeny, although the robustness of this conclusion is constrained by our limited knowledge of fish evolutionary history.last_img read more

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The energetics of gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, during the breeding season

first_img1. The food consumption of an animal. both at the individual and the population level, is an essential component for assessing the impact of that animal on its ecosystem. As such, measurements of the energy requirements of marine top-predators are extremely valuable as they can be used to estimate these food requirements. 2. The present study used heart rate to estimate the rate of energy expenditure of gentoo penguins during the breeding season. The average daily metabolic rate (ADMR) of penguins when one adult was necessarily present at the nest (incubating eggs or guarding small chicks; IG, 4.76 W kg(-1)) was significantly lower than that when both parents forage concurrently during the major period of chick growth (CR: 6.88 W kg(-1)). 3. The ADMR of a bird was found to be dependent on a number of factors, including the day within the breeding season and the percentage time that the bird spent foraging during that day. 4. When they were ashore, the estimated metabolic rate of IG birds (3.94 W kg(-1)) was significantly lower than that of CR birds (5.93 W kg(-1)). However, the estimated metabolic rates when the birds were at sea during these periods were essentially the same (8.58 W kg(-1)). 5. The heart rate recorded when the penguins were submerged (128 beats min(-1)) was significantly higher than that recorded from resting animals when ashore (89 beats min(-1)). However, it was lower than that recorded from birds that were swimming in a water channel (177 beats min(-1)). This might indicate that, although primarily aerobic in nature, there was an anaerobic component to metabolism during diving. An alternative interpretation is that the metabolic requirement during diving was lower than when the birds,were swimming with access to air. 6. There was a significant decline in abdominal temperature. from 38.8 degreesC at the start of a diving bout to 36.2 degreesC at the end, which may, indicate a reduction in overall metabolic rate during submersion. This in turn may explain the lowered heart rate. 7. In the present study. we have shown that the metabolic rate of the gentoo penguin varies during the breeding season. The relatively constant metabolic rate of the birds when at sea could represent an upper physiological limit that the birds are unable to exceed. If so, it will only be possible for the birds to increase foraging effort by diving more frequently and/or for longer periods thus reducing their foraging efficiency (the energy gained during foraging vs. energy spent gaining that food). During years when food is scarce, this reduction in foraging efficiency may have a profound influence on the reproductive productivity of the gentoo penguin.last_img read more

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Global patterns of sex- and age-specific variation in seabird bycatch

first_imgFisheries bycatch is a major threat to seabird populations, and understanding sex- and age-biases in bycatch rates is important for assessing population-level impacts. We analysed 44 studies to provide the first global assessment of seabird bycatch by sex and age, and used generalised models to investigate the effects of region and fishing method. Bycatch was highly biased by sex (65% of 123 samples) and age (92% of 114 samples), with the majority of samples skewed towards males and adults. Bycatch of adults and males was higher in subpolar regions, whereas there was a tendency for more immatures and females to be killed in subtropical waters. Fishing method influenced sex- and age-ratios only in subpolar regions. Sex- and age-biases are therefore common features of seabird bycatch in global fisheries that appear to be associated largely with differences in at-sea distributions. This unbalanced mortality influences the extent to which populations are impacted by fisheries, which is a key consideration for at-risk species. We recommend that researchers track individuals of different sex and age classes to improve knowledge of their distribution, relative overlap with vessels, and hence susceptibility to bycatch. This information should then be incorporated in ecological risk assessments of effects of fisheries on vulnerable species. Additionally, data on sex, age and provenance of bycaught birds should be collected by fisheries observers in order to identify regions and fleets where bycatch is more likely to result in population-level impacts, and to improve targeting of bycatch mitigation and monitoring of compliance.last_img read more

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SLCC Men’s Basketball Signs One More For 2018-19 Squad

first_img Tags: Brian Washington/Casper College/Cimarron-Memorial Spartans/Fresno Pacific/Las Vegas/North Dakota State/SLCC Men’s Basketball Brad James FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailTAYLORSVILLE, Utah-Monday, SLCC men’s basketball announced a new signing to the 2018-19 recruiting class.Amid various signings over the course of the past month, the Bruins signed 6’7″ Brian Washington of Cimarron-Memorial High School in Las Vegas.Washington, who came to the Spartans via Hawaii, has experience both as a power forward and center.The Bruins, per the press release on slccbruins.com, expect him to “fill the role of an athletic post presence.”Per the Las Vegas Review-Journal, Washington also received interest from Division I North Dakota State and Division II Fresno Pacific as well as Casper College (Wyo.) Written by June 26, 2018 /Sports News – Local SLCC Men’s Basketball Signs One More For 2018-19 Squadlast_img read more

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Robert Kraft ‘truly sorry’ for not meeting ‘higher standard’ in wake of sex scandal

first_img Written by March 23, 2019 /Sports News – National Robert Kraft ‘truly sorry’ for not meeting ‘higher standard’ in wake of sex scandal FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailMaddie Meyer/Getty Images(BOSTON) — Robert Kraft, the owner of the Super Bowl champion New England Patriots, said in a statement on Saturday that he is “truly sorry” for getting caught up in an investigation into sex trafficking arising from his visits to a Florida spa, where authorities charge he twice solicited sexual favors for money earlier this year.“I am truly sorry,” Kraft wrote in the statement. “I know I have hurt and disappointed my family, my close friends, my co-workers, our fans and many others who rightfully hold me to a higher standard.”Kraft also described his “extraordinary respect for women” and cited the spirit of his late wife, Myra Kraft, who died in 2011 of ovarian cancer after 48 years of marriage.“Throughout my life, I have always tried to do the right thing. The last thing I would ever want to do is disrespect another human being. I have extraordinary respect for women; my morals and my soul were shaped by the most wonderful woman, the love of my life, who I was blessed to have as my partner for 50 years.”“As I move forward, I hope to continue to use the platform with which I have been blessed to help others and to try to make a difference. I expect to be judged not by my words, but by my actions. And through those actions, I hope to regain your confidence and respect.”Kraft has been charged by Palm Beach prosecutors with two misdemeanor counts of soliciting prostitution for allegedly visiting the Orchids of Asia Day Spa in Jupiter, Florida on two occasions earlier this year and paying for sexual favors from the massage parlor’s staff. Two dozen other men caught up in the probe were similarly charged.Authorities set up hidden cameras at the spa as part of a larger investigation into sex trafficking and, according to Jupiter police detectives, obtained video evidence of all of the suspects participating in the alleged sexual acts.Kraft chose to reject a deferred prosecution agreement offered this week to all of the men charged, which would not have required him to plead guilty to any charges, a source close to Kraft told ABC News on Wednesday.Kraft’s attorneys have been engaged in negotiations with the Palm Beach County State Attorney’s Office for much of this week, sources told ABC News, though it does not appear that any deal has been reached to date.Defense attorneys for the National Football League (NFL) team owner reportedly believe that a search warrant that allowed investigators to install hidden cameras inside the spa’s massage rooms was improperly obtained, and note among other things that an investigation premised on probing alleged human trafficking at the Orchids spa has yet to lead to any trafficking charges.“We have looked into it, we’ve looked at the charges brought, looked at the evidence, and there is zero evidence of human trafficking,” defense attorney William Burck told the New York Times.The billionaire team owner has reportedly been deeply distressed by the charges and the subsequent publicity.Several unidentified friends of Kraft told the New York Times this weekend that even a month after being charged, he still “breaks down in tears when discussing the situation.”Triple threatSince his name first surfaced last month in connection with the lengthy investigation into sex trafficking at Florida massage parlors, the veteran Patriots owner is facing a trio of threats — drawing scrutiny from the courts, the NFL and the public at large.If he is cleared of the criminal charges, he could still face censure from the NFL, and if he survives that, he still faces the possibility of potentially embarrassing video of himself at the massage parlor being leaked, or even publicly released under some potential outcomes.The investigation involved dozens of law enforcement officials from numerous agencies as well their counterparts in criminal courts system. Access to such evidence is naturally more vulnerable to misuse the more hands it passes through, defense attorneys and law enforcement officials told ABC News this week.Kraft’s made his statement the day before the NFL team owners’ annual gathering on Sunday in Phoenix — a collection of peers whose judgment on Kraft’s misdemeanor solicitation of prostitution charges could prove equally if not more impactful than any criminal court.NFL Commissioner Roger Godell has punished Kraft’s Patriots more severely than any other franchise during his tenure, according to ESPN. He fined them $250,000, and coach Bill Belichick $500,000, for spying on an opponent’s defensive signals in 2007. He fined the Patriots $1 million, stripped them of two draft choices and suspended quarterback Tom Brady as part of the 2015 “Deflategate” investigation.Even without pleading guilty, league policy states that Kraft could still subject to league penalties, according to ESPN.“It is not enough simply to avoid being found guilty of a crime. We are all held to a higher standard and must conduct ourselves in a way that is responsible, promotes the values of the NFL, and is lawful.”Earlier this week, a coalition of sexual exploitation and sex trafficking survivor networks wrote a letter calling on Goodell to investigate criminal charges against Kraft and if found to be true to strip him of ownership of the Super Bowl champions franchise, according to a letter released by the coalition on Tuesday.No dealThe proposed pre-trial diversion offer would have required Kraft to either acknowledge guilt or admit that he would have been proven guilty at trial, according to the spokesperson for the Palm Beach County State Attorney’s Office, Mike Edmondson.The Patriots team owner has pleaded not guilty and opted for a non-jury trial before a judge, while assembling a powerhouse team of high-profile Florida criminal defense attorneys.While Kraft is currently facing a statutory maximum of one year in jail, if he were to have accepted the plea agreement, the misdemeanor charges would have been dropped.As part of the statute, Kraft would have had to perform 100 hours of community service, attend a class on the dangers of prostitution and pay a $5,000 fine per count, according to Edmondson.The deal was offered to Kraft and 24 other men charged in the case, though it remained unclear by Saturday if any of the men had accepted the deal.Public records?Depending on the outcome of the case, a key law enforcement figure in the investigation said he believes the alleged video evidence could eventually be publicized.Earlier this week, lawyers for Kraft and 14 of the 24 other men charged in the investigation filed a joint motion seeking a protective order to keep evidence in the case from being released – including hidden camera video of the men in the massage parlor rooms.But prosecutors “declined to agree to the protective order,” Kraft attorney William Burck told the New York Post.“We’ve been surprised and disappointed that the state attorney did not sign on to the protective order, because it is a standard procedure in a criminal case.”The Florida sheriff whose department is overseeing the multi-county investigation told CNBC this week that he expects the video evidence could eventually be released publicly.“I do think ultimately they are probably going to get released,” Martin County Sheriff William Snyder said on Thursday, one day after Kraft’s attorneys filed the motion for the protective order over the evidence.“Once a case is over, it’s not an ongoing investigation,” Snyder said. “There has to be a specific reason not to release a public record. And the fact that there is sexual activity is not an exemption.”With the case ongoing, the video will remain under seal, Snyder told the financial news channel.“The question is if they plead guilty and the case goes away, will it be subject to public record?” Snyder said. “I think the answer is yes.”The allegations against Kraft came three weeks after the Patriots beat the Los Angeles Rams to win the team’s sixth Super Bowl title.This year marks the 25th anniversary of Kraft’s then-NFL record $172 million purchase of the Patriots in 1994.Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.center_img Beau Lundlast_img read more

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Dixie State Football Earns First Win of Season

first_img Tags: Conner Miller/Darrius Nash/Dejuan Dantzler/Dixie State Football/Fort Lewis Skyhawks/Simote Lokotui/Xavier Smith Written by FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailDURANGO, Colo.-Kody Wilstead completed 16 of 32 passes for 327 yards, three touchdowns and an interception as the Dixie State Trailblazers bested the Fort Lewis Skyhawks 23-14 Saturday at Dennison Memorial Field in Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference football action.Wilstead judiciously spread the ball around, throwing touchdown passes to Conner Miller (3 rec, 110 yards, TD), Xavier Smith ( 2 rec, 65 yards, TD) and Dejuan Dantzler (3 rec, 59 yards, TD) in the win for Dixie State, which improves them to 1-1 on the season.The Skyhawks built a 14-0 lead at the half as Jake Lowry (17 of 34, 212 yards, 2 TD’s/INT) threw a pair of touchdown passes to Isaac Lepkee (2 rec, 54 yards, TD). Nevertheless, Dixie State took control in the second half by virtue of Wilstead’s steady quarterbacking as he averaged 9 yards per attempt and 19.4 yards per completion on the afternoon.Redshirt sophomore defensive back Darrius Nash added an interception and fellow redshirt sophomore defensive back Simote Lokotui stepped up with a pair of sacks to lead the Trailblazers’ defense.The Trailblazers again hit the road next Saturday as they face the New Mexico Highlands Cowboys at Las Vegas, N.M. in hopes of improving to 2-1 in RMAC play. September 14, 2019 /Sports News – Local Dixie State Football Earns First Win of Season Brad Jameslast_img read more

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Utah State Men’s Basketball Hosts Aggie Madness This Evening

first_img Brad James FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailLOGAN, Utah-Thursday, Utah State men’s basketball hosts Aggie Madness at 8:30 pm at the Wayne Estes Center on Kirby Court.This event consists of a 3-point shootout, dunk contest and eight-minute scrimmages featuring both the Aggies men’s and women’s basketball teams.Fans are encouraged to arrive at 7:30 pm and all Utah State students in attendance will receive free pizza.The evening concludes with a dunk competition by the Aggies’ men’s team and throughout the evening, students will have the opportunity to compete in “not your average Aggie.” This event pairs students up with a random Aggies men’s or women’s basketball player for various contests. Tags: Aggie Madness/dunk competition/USU Men’s Basketball Written by October 10, 2019 /Sports News – Local Utah State Men’s Basketball Hosts Aggie Madness This Eveninglast_img read more

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McDonald leads Hawaii to 38-34 win over BYU in Hawaii Bowl

first_imgDecember 24, 2019 /Sports News – Local McDonald leads Hawaii to 38-34 win over BYU in Hawaii Bowl Written by FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailCole McDonald delivered early and late for Hawaii in a 38-34 victory over BYU in the Hawaii Bowl.McDonald threw for 331 yards and three touchdowns in the first half to stake the Warriors to the lead.BYU’s defense took over from there. The Cougars were on the verge of shutting out Hawaii in the second half. But with the final possession, McDonald delivered two big throws to Nick Mardner. One went for 38 yards to put Hawaii in field goal range. The next was a 24-yard strike for a touchdown.Hawaii beat BYU for the first time since 2001. Associated Press Tags: BYU Cougars Football/Cole McDonald/Hawai’i Bowl/Hawaii Rainbow Warriorslast_img read more

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Mitchell scores 26, Jazz beats the Heat 116-101

first_imgFebruary 12, 2020 /Sports News – Local Mitchell scores 26, Jazz beats the Heat 116-101 Tags: Donovan Mitchell/NBA/Utah Jazz Written by FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailSALT LAKE CITY (AP) — Donovan Mitchell scored 26 points and Bojan Bogdanovic added 22 points to lift the Utah Jazz to a 116-101 victory over the Miami Heat.Jordan Clarkson added 21 points off the bench for the Jazz. Rudy Gobert had 16 points and 20 rebounds as Utah won its fourth straight game.Jimmy Butler scored 25 points to lead the Heat. Duncan Robinson added 18 points and Jae Crowder chipped in 15 off the bench. Associated Presslast_img read more

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