Just before nabbing an insect, a bat emits a rapid series of ultrasonic calls whose echoes back pinpoint the prey’s exact location. Scientists call these sounds “the feeding buzz,” and they’re known to attract other bats presumably in search of a meal. When another bat arrives, it can jam the hunter’s buzz, according to a new study, much like someone blocking a radio signal. That causes the original bat to miss its meal, allowing its competitor to swoop in to grab the insect instead.“It’s a thrilling finding,” says Mirjam Knörnschild, a behavioral ecologist and bat vocalization expert at the University of Ulm in Germany, who was not involved in the study. “Sonar interference has always been an exciting possible explanation … for the fact that certain bat species are highly vocal, and this elegantly designed study is a convincing demonstration.”Aaron Corcoran, a biologist at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, first detected the jamming call while recording bat-moth interactions in Arizona. Other researchers had previously discovered that Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) make at least 15 types of social calls and even adjust their ultrasonic vocalizations to avoid interfering with those of others. To find out how the bats were using this call, the scientists recorded their competitive bouts on video and with an array of ultrasonic microphones at field sites in Arizona and New Mexico. They matched up the calls to the bats’ flight paths so that they could see at what point hunters made the feeding buzz and competitors emitted a blocking signal. From this 3D reconstruction, Corcoran and William Conner, a biologist also at Wake Forest University, realized that the bats were more competitive than cooperative, and readily wielded their highly effective and disruptive jamming call. “They use it at the moment of truth, when the hunter is zeroing in on its prey,” Conner says.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)The jamming call works by overlapping the competitor’s final frenzied feeding buzz, creating sound waves that confuse the processing done by the bat’s auditory neurons and ability to target the prey’s position with its ultrasonic clicks, a process known as echolocation. Still, a jammed bat can turn the tables on its competitor and use the same method to interfere with its hunt. “They whiz back and forth, back and forth, fighting over the prey, until one finally gives up,” Conner says.In Arizona, the scientists documented 145 bat attacks on insects; 85.9% of these attempts failed when another bat emitted the jamming call. Without a competitor to interfere, the bats’ success rate jumped to 30%. The researchers also tested bats with controlled playback experiments. They tethered a moth to a monofilament line about 5 meters above the ground, then played a recorded jamming call just as a hunting bat targeted the insect with its feeding buzz. The bats’ capture success rate dropped by 73.5% compared with when they hunted without interference from the recording, the team reports online today in Science.Five years ago, Corcoran and Conner showed that tiger moths can jam the hunting sonar of brown bats. But this is the first time that this type of competitive interference among individuals of the same species has been discovered in animals, they say.Other researchers had previously heard similar calls from different bat species, including male big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), and suggested that the sound might be used in cooperative foraging, or to claim food. “It’s clearly not for cooperating,” says Cynthia Moss, a neuroscientist at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, whose team proposed the food-claiming explanation—and is sticking to it. “There is evidence for both claiming and jamming,” she says, noting that her group “didn’t see the timing of the call the way” that Corcoran and Conner did, consistently overlapping that rapid, terminal feeding buzz. “While this paper is very provocative, interesting, and important, it is not the last word.”Still, the very idea that bats have not only sonar but also a jamming signal is “cool,” Conner says. “We think engineers are pretty clever when they use a signal to jam sonar and radar. But bats came up with this idea 65 million years earlier.” Now, he and Corcoran wonder if other echolocating species such as dolphins engage in competitive jamming bouts as well.
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Innovation Lenders Mortgage Industry TILA-RESPA Integrated Disclosure Rule 2015-09-03 Staff Writer in Commentary, Daily Dose, Government, Headlines, News, Technology Share September 3, 2015 547 Views Diverging from the Herd: Why Lenders Must Innovate Before it’s Too Late History has shown that those who take a different path than the rest emerge as leaders, while those that continue with the same path eventually get run over.The mortgage industry has enjoyed a static environment of lending for almost 50 years with very few major changes or dramatic shifts in the manner in which business has been conducted. With the exception of banks getting bigger geographically, and firms such as Quicken implementing just a touch of innovation via the internet, business have had little in the way of shifting market share.The question is, “Why has the mortgage industry remained so static, and why hasn’t someone really emerged as different?”What generally drives shifting markets and innovation in other industries is the consumer. Businesses build their entire strategy around attracting consumers and keeping them engaged. However, that doesn’t seem to be the case with the mortgage industry. To put it simply, there is entirely too much focus on “getting the deal done” and avoiding the regulatory spotlight, with not nearly enough on serving the consumer.The baby boomer generation pushed itself to improve on the processes established by the previous generation through cost-cutting, rather than efficiency, convenience or technology. In the context of obtaining a mortgage, the most important aspect of choosing a mortgage lender became the proffered monthly payment and/or APR, and the market responded accordingly.Now, the world is shifting quickly, and the CFPB has accelerated its focus on consumer participation and education in the mortgage process. The wrongdoings from the recession have forced the ship to be righted, placing the focus back on measures instead of profits. This is now going to be rapidly accelerated by 80 million millennials and their insatiable demand for technology. What this means is the industry must respond to the APR and payment issues, but must do so with a more massive amount of service through technology. In other words, the industry must do more for less.This massive, accelerated paradigm shift will cause denial, confusion and, finally, acceptance. As October 3 approaches, it is clear the vast majority of companies are behind and won’t be ready for TRID. They may be able to technically calculate numbers and generate forms, but they won’t be able to do it at a price even close to reasonable, so the first thing that will occur is that profits will suffer.”The mortgage industry is being transformed through process, regulation and market demand for service. Lenders that rely on the old ways are going to be left behind.”As the industry moves through the first quarter post-TRID, these businesses will question the point of the new rules and why they are doing any of this. At the same time, a minority will have enough vision to see they can provide more service and make more money through innovation and the use of technology. Given the results of the CFPB’s eClosing pilot program, that use of technology is most likely going to take the form of a digital closing platform. Not only does this type of platform provide the monetary and efficiency benefits lenders will need, but it also provides an opportunity to provide transparency to the process and bring together ALL players in the transaction–borrower, real estate agent, lender and settlement agent–to facilitate better communication and a much smoother mortgage closing overall.When this minority begins to show the opposite results of everyone else, they will begin to take market share and the industry will take notice. The question is, “Will it be too late for those that didn’t have the vision?” Time will tell, but the reality for those who show up late will likely be costs rising at a dramatic pace, that will put companies out of business, and it won’t take very long to do that.The decisions mortgage lenders make today are going to have a tremendous impact on how they weather the next six months to a year. The heavy majority are consumed with fitting TRID into the existing mortgage paradigm, but almost no one has stopped to think that perhaps it is the paradigm that needs to change, rather than the legislation.This is also the same time at which millennials will accelerate their move into the housing market. When they realize there are those that can provide an efficient, high-end, technology-rich experience, the market will shift dramatically. This results in the industry looking forward to a rapidly shifting environment where they are basically “betting the farm” on the decisions they are making right now.The mortgage industry is being transformed through process, regulation and market demand for service. Lenders that rely on the old ways are going to be left behind. However, by making one innovative change through adopting a platform where everyone can be educated and participate in the process, that has the potential to solve 80 percent of the post-TRID issues lenders will face, and position them for growth rather than stagnation.This one principle has proven true in every other industry and in every other process. When people communicate, they work better together. One decision may dictate lenders’ futures and where they will be placing their focus next year. Rather than just waiting for it to happen and dealing with the fallout after the fact, now is the time take action. Choose a different path. Diverge from the herd.Click here to learn more about Pavaso, Inc.